Over the last decade, antibiotic resistance has put increasing pressure on human healthcare and is estimated to account for 700,000 deaths every year (1). The use (and misuse) of antibiotics in both human medicine and agriculture is a well-known cause of resistance; a much-less discussed driver is the environmental discharge of pharmaceuticals (2). Both the development and spread of resistant bacteria in the environment can be promoted by antibiotic selection, and so release of antibiotics into the environment can accelerate the problem. Importantly, in contrast to the use of antibiotics, environmental discharges are not associated with any benefits – only risks.
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